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Principles of Compression Therapy & Clinical Benefits of ATN Compression Socks

Well fitting measured compression socks and stockings help with venous return, they decreases venous pressure, prevent venous stasis and deterioration of venous walls, and efficiently relieves "aching and heavy legs "by aiding the body in moving blood up the leg against the pull of gravity back to the lungs for oxygenation via a complicated venous network.   When compressing the limb with a graduated compression sock or stocking - the strongest (highest compression point ) is always at the ankle and the pressure decreases as the sock works it's way up the leg . 
The ATN compression socks and stockings help treat phlebitis, thrombosis and are used following surgery, sclerotherapy and any other forms of varicose vein treatment, and also to relieve all conditions of chronic venous disease (heavy legs, varicose veins, oedemas, leg ulcers)  We also encourage The use of ATN compression product  to prevent venous issues during pregnancy and long distance travel. 
If no  contraindications like severe arterial insufficiency are present, ATN compression socks are your perfect companion!
ATN Principles of Compression 
1. The compression socks/stockings deliver a controlled pressure on the limb. The pressure unit is the millimeter of mercury (mmHg) or the hecto Pascals (hPa). 1 mmHg = 1.33 hPa.
2. The pressure is exerted by the application of the product to your legs.  ATN compression socks and stockings must meet strict requirements to ensure all international standards for compression profiles are met.
3. The action of the ATN compression socks and stockings is what we refer to as a mechanical action.
4. The compression  MUST Always be higher at ankle. This is why measuring the ankle and calf circumference is so important.
5. The pressure is degressive. The direction of the blood stream must be respected. There MUST always be a gradual pressure decrease from ankle upwards to ensure there is no "reverse gradient compression occurring".
References: - Pollack A.A. et Wood E.H. Venous pressure in the saphenous vein at the ankle in man during exercise and changes in posture. J Appl Physicl. 1949,1: 649.
- Rhys Morris  and Woodcock- Evidence based compression
- Partsch H., Rabe E., Stemmer R. Compression. Chaptre 5. In: Compression of the extremities. Editions Phlébologiques Françaises. 2000. Paris. Pages 57-134.
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The Effects of ATN Compression
1. The Hemodynamic effect:- Virchow's Triad 
* ATN compression socks Increases venous blood flow
* Decreases venous blood volume
* Reduces reflux in diseased superficial and/or deep veins
* Reduces a pathologically elevated venous pressure
 2. The Effect of ATN compression socks on the tissue:-
* Reduces an elevated oedema in the tissue
* Increases the drainage of  substances
* Reduces inflammation
* Sustains repairing processes
* Improves movement of tendons and joints
Compression Classes
Compression hosiery is classed according to the amount of pressure (in mmHg) applied at the narrowest point of the ankle. You  should always consider the highest-grade sock or stocking you are able to tolerate or otherwise suggested by your medical practitioner. Classes include light support (12-14 mmHg), Moderate support (20-30 mmHg), Therapy (30-40 mmHg).  
How Does Blood Circulate?
There are three major components to the circulation system: the heart, the arteries, and the veins.
The heart pumps oxygen and nutrient-rich blood through a network of arteries to every cell in the body. The veins return waste products generated by the body and deoxygenated blood back to the heart and lungs to be enriched with oxygen and nutrients before being pumped back to the body where the cycle continues.The veins must overcome gravity to transport used blood back to the heart. The rhythmic contractions of the heart and movements of the chest and body's muscles eg. calf muscles contribute to transporting the blood back to the heart through the veins.
How Do Veins and Valves Work?
Healthy legs have veins with very smooth elastic walls that are designed to adapt to the changes in pressure within a vein. Deoxygenated blood is pumped through a series of veins and venous valves. As the leg muscles are activated (contract) the valves in the veins open to allow blood to flow back towards the heart.
Each valve has two opposed flaps that act like gates opening in one direction stopping blood from moving back down the leg. The continuous activity of the muscles in the body squeezes the veins and forces the blood from valve to valve. When the leg muscles are tightened the valves open to allow blood to pass through. When the muscles are relaxed the valves close to stop any backflow.
ATN Measurement Guide 
You must carry out an assessment for sizing before selecting your gorgeous ATN compression hosiery. Measuring of the lower leg must be done in the early morning when the limb is the least swollen or following a period of leg elevation. Each leg is measured independently. A measurement of the circumference of the ankle and largest section of the calf (if the largest part is just below the knee you measure there) is needed for proper sizing. Please refer to the sizing charts provided. 
More detailed measurements are necessary for custom-made stockings particularly lymphoedema patients. These customers need a detailed series of measurements taken at anatomical reference points along the length of the leg. Please contact our customer service team at (866) 433-3803 for this service.
Compression hosiery must be worn daily to achieve the benefits of edema control and removed at night when the leg is elevated. Ideally, ready-to-wear stockings should be renewed every six - twelve months with the rotation of two pairs of stockings.